What is Persistent Depressive Disorder? – Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment
Persistent Depressive Disorder also is known as dysthymia is the long-term chronic form of the disorder that is usually very low in the start and get intense with time. It is the fifth edition of the mental illnesses in the United States which is a consolidation of two mental illnesses, i.e. chronic major depressive episode and dysthymic disorder.
The last stages of PDD can lead the individuals to think much negative like suicide. However, it is not much danger in the starting two years.
This disorder affects the moods of the men, and they start remaining depressed for at least two years. After these years they start facing severe negative moods. Almost 4% of the people suffer from Persistent depressive disorder in their childhood or adulthood.
This type of disorder is more common in women than in men. Apart from depression we’ve seen that the patients also face the conditions of weakness, less concentration, poor eating, insomnia or excessive sleep.
When the stage becomes intense the only start going towards the steps of hopelessness, there also occurs a phase of major depression which is known as the second depression. The patients of PDD usually don’t go towards the significant higher disorders anyhow they face a higher risk of fear and substance use disorder.
Statistics on Dysthymia
The diagnosis of dysthymia showed that the mood temper is not as harsh as other disorders. The individuals will only face a sour mood when they’ve passed two years of dysthymia.
According to the National Institute of Mental health, dysthymia is common in 1.5% of the adults in the United States however 49.7% are the severe cases which arise after the age of 31.
Dysthymia usually affects 11.2% of 13 to 18 years old adults in which the girls’ ratio is generally higher than the boys.
Causes of Dysthymia
Following are some common causes of Persistent Depressive Disorder.
Some people are passing through the extreme conditions of stress from a long time. Probably because of their issues, this stress leads towards the PDD. Depression affects the function of the neurotransmitters of the brain. They disturb the neurocircuit of the brain. The balance between the chemicals of the brain changes which alters the stability of mood.
Persistent depressive disorder can be the result of inherited genes of PDD from the parents.
Some major life events affect the moods like the traumatic and stressful life events that lead towards the stages of depression.
Some personal traits that include negativity like low self-temper, pessimistic and financial dependence upon others.
Symptoms of Dysthymia
Although the Persistent depressive disorder is not as much severe as other mental disorders. However, the individuals only face the depressed moods most of the times. The significant symptoms of the PDD are
- Loss of interest in the daily routine tasks
- Sadness or hopelessness all the times
- Low energy or fatigue
- Low self-confidence
- Poor eating or overeating
- Social isolation
- Frustration or anger
- Low sleep or excessive sleep
- Poor thinking and poor decision making
- Feeling of guilt and taking worry for the past things
Diagnosis of the Persistent Depressive Disorder
The stages of continuous depression or stress make you feel weak many times. You start diagnosing yourself that surely you have some mental disorder. The doctor usually diagnoses your condition from the symptoms of PDD. Anyhow he takes some blood or urine samples for detailed diagnosis.
Treatments of Dysthymia
When you start remaining depressed for a long time, this is a not a good stage. At this stage, you should better consult a doctor. Go to your physician to have proper treatment.
The doctor will evaluate the causes of your illness and will give a better understanding of your treatment. You should seek the advice of the doctor again and again.
In the present times, there are two significant treatments for dysthymia that are medication and psychotherapy. A doctor will give you one of them after watching your preferences or previous mental health treatment. Anyhow for children or adolescents, psychotherapy is the best option if they fit mental health in the past.
Doctors commonly use the following drugs for the treatment of Persistent Depressive Disorder.
- SSRIs (Selective Serotonin reuptake inhibitors)
- TCAs ( Tricyclic anti-depressants)
- SNRIs ( Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors)
Before taking these medications always consult your doctor and ensure that they’re suitable for you or not. After using these medications, you’ll face some little effects but don’t worry these are normal.
Psychotherapy is the most potent treatment for persistent depressive disorder. There are many kinds of psychotherapy which are used according to the situation of the patient. Following are some main advantages of the psychotherapy.
- Analysis and possible symptom management
- Identify the potential factors that cause PDD and coping the strategies to handle those situations
- Change the thinking of the patients and guide them towards the positive moods
- Convince them towards making good companies and guide different ways to boost their spirits.
- Teach the personal goals and teach them the possible problem-solving skills.
The kinds of psychotherapeutic treatments are
- Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
- Family Therapy
- Group Therapy
- Talk therapy
The doctors also guide the patients to adopt a healthy lifestyle to fight with the PDD. Take proper sleep, take healthy diet and employ healthy activities in the daily routine life.
Some significant things help you to fight with the Persistent depressive disorder, and you can get better after taking some cautions.
- Talk to your close family members and friends about it, and they’ll suggest positive ways to boost your mood.
- Engage yourself in the exciting and healthy routine life activities that will change your concentration towards the problems
- Top taking stress over things and try to leave them
- Get a long-term medical treatment so that you can fully recover from mental illness.