- 1 Environmental and Biological Stress – An Overview
- 2 Three Types of Stress and Stress Relief Techniques
- 3 Psychological Stress: Type, Causes, and Treatments
Stress is defined as strain produced by the environment on the capacity of an individual in both psychological and biological manners eventually causing an imbalance in the body. Life is occupied with stress, affecting almost every age. Stress comes in different shapes and size even overthinking also causes stress. Till today three perspectives are linked to stress: In this article, I will explain the most dangerous Diseases Caused by Stress that badly affects the human body system.
Environmental and Biological Stress – An Overview
Environmental Stress: includes the environmental factors or experiences inducing adaptive demand.
Psychological Stress: it emphasizes a person’s psychological ability to cope with a certain situation.
Biological Stress: it involves the efficiency of the physiological system as a result of both physical and psychological conditions.
The relationship between stress and illness is complex as different persons perceive stress differently. Stressors under certain limits boost the immune system of the body whereas above limits it induces malfunctioning in body. It is from one of the Diseases Caused by Stress. Nowadays, the inclination has been found in stress prevalence especially at workplaces. In the 21st century “work till death “is a well-known norm especially in countries like Japan and China where working hours are too long. Stress-related mortalities are alarming especially in the UK where 180,000 people die each year from some stress-related disorders.
Similarly, in the US, the center for Disease Control and Prevention estimated that 75% of doctors visit is due to stress-related problems. The agency for safety and health in Europe has reported 50% employee shows absence from the workplace because of stress.
Three Types of Stress and Stress Relief Techniques
At some stage of life, many people suffer from psychological traumas. Such as the departure of a loved one, natural disaster, violence, accidents or diagnosis of some illness, all these lead to major diseases and mortality. One of the diagnostic criteria for psychiatric disorders is former stressful life events.
The major categories of stress-related disorders depend upon the type of stressor are:
- Acute stress disorder
- Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
- Adjustment syndrome
Psychological Stress: Type, Causes, and Treatments
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the utmost severe kind of stress represented by avoidance, negative emotions, mood swings and hyperarousal by some stressful event whereas adjustment syndrome includes physical and psychological stress caused by known events of life.
To sustain the rhythms and demands of today’s life, the human body requires intense physical and psychological efforts, in which the intern operates many neuroendocrine circuits. The neuroendocrine circuits thus maintain the homeostatic equilibrium of the body. The intensity and duration of stress stimuli have a direct effect on the adaptation and balance of the body, where disturbance leads to illness. Psychological stress can be managed depending upon the individual’s perception and controllability. The way a body takes certain stressor and then control it defines the eventual stress response. The more rapidly it controls earlier the body will maintain its equilibrium. Koolhaas and his colleagues worked on the same mechanism and found that stress stimulus is the real stressor to neuroendocrine systems but only those that exceed the body’s ability to change and adapt.
Knowing the fact that stress has many cellular targets and mediators for its signaling pathways, one can easily predict the functional disturbance in the tissue and organs of the body as a result of stress. Researches have shown that chronic stress causes macroscopic alteration in some brain areas including changes in tissue volume, some physical alterations like in neuronal networks. Research in animals provides evidence that the Prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the limbic system have also shown the changes in neuronal plasticity and reduction in spine density.
What are Morphological Disorders.? – Diseases Caused by Stress
Similarly, the results collected from the post-mortem study of depressed persons found certain morphological disorders. Blix and colleagues also found the dysfunctionality of basal ganglia and reduction in the grey matter in PFC, is the result of chronic stress. That eventually increases the susceptibility to psychological diseases.
The immune system is directly linked to stress as most of the stress receptors are hormones and neuropeptides. And these are expressed in the immune system. Most of the time stress causes acute phase response that leads to inflammation. And tissue damage due to overexpression of cytokines and certain other inflammatory biomarkers. From an evolutionary point of view, the stress response is an adaptive process produced as a result of immune system stimulation. In this scenario, the brain perceives the stressor as a “danger” that is harmful and stimulates a neuroimmune circuit that will further elicit the protective mechanism of the immune system to stop that damage, repair and to recover the body equilibrium.
The cytokines produced by immune cells undergo a feedback mechanism. It also stimulates the release of stress hormones in the brain causing an imbalance in the neuroendocrine/ immune system. That then leads to chronic inflammation along with other illnesses. Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, autoimmune syndrome, diabetes, and other mental illnesses. Such as depression and anxiety are linked to both stress and inflammation.
Factors that cause Asthma – Diseases Caused by Stress
Asthma is from one of the Diseases Caused by Stress. It’s a respiratory disorder involves coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, especially at heights and chest tightness. It can occur at any age and if not cured properly leads to dysfunction of lungs. Researches have shown that asthma is caused by some internal as well as external factor. Where psychological stressors are one of the internal factors causing asthma. In children, the diagnosis of asthma is linked to family therapy where minimizing the interaction with parents producing stress in every situation helps in recovering from the disease.
Cause of Ulcers in Human Body:
Ulcers are from one of the Diseases Caused by Stress. Ulcers are caused by increased acid production in the stomach. To date, it was known that angry people’s stomach produces more acid whereas in depression the stomach produces less acid. There are several theories linked to the development of an ulcer. One such theory says that noradrenaline during stress causes capillaries constriction hence the lesser flow of blood towards the lining of the stomach that produces mucus. Thus, blocking the mucosal protection of stomach lining causing hydrochloric acid to reach tissue. And even to the blood vessels and hence bleeding.
Another theory that is in contradiction to the above theory. Says that stomach ulcers are caused by H. pylori, a bacterium that causing damage in stomach tissues.
Migraine pain in half side of the head is due to dilation and compression of carotid arteries on one side of the brain. The constriction of the carotid artery is associated with light and noise sensitivity. Whereas dilation is linked to chemical stimulants causing pains. Emotional stress, anger, rage, diet imbalance, anxiety are the major causes of migraines. Migraine is curable by controlling the factor that triggers it.